Types of Basil You Can Grow in Your Garden
Basil is a plant used for gastronomic and medicinal purposes. What many people don't know is that there are many varieties. So, what are the types of basil you can grow in your garden?
All types of basil belong to the botanical genus Ocimum. However, the most well-known is common basil (Ocimum basilicum) which has both culinary and medicinal purposes. Beyond this, there are other interesting species of basil you can grow in your garden. Want to find out more? Keep reading!
First of all, keep in mind that this plant prefers warm summer temperatures. In fact, it tends to wilt soon at the first sign of low temperatures. Even so, it’s easy to grow and suitable for gardens of any size. We’ll tell you more in the paragraphs below.
The main types of basil
The plant species belonging to the Lamiaceae family have a long history as aromatic and medicinal herbs. Of these, the most popular are those of the genus Ocimum which we all know as “basil”.
In particular, according to estimates, there are more than 30 types of basil. Each variety differs in taste, color, and shape. So, which are the most popular types of basil you can grow in your garden? We’ll list them off for you and tell you a bit about each one.
Its scientific name is Ocimum basilicum and it’s also known as “sweet basil”. Although it’s native to South Asia, it grows all over the world. According to a review by Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol, the plant and its essential oils have bioactive compounds that promote health.
These include polyphenols and flavonoids, whose antioxidant action is associated with the prevention of chronic diseases. In the kitchen, it’s a popular ingredient for preparing pestos, marinades, and salads.
Read also: How to Freeze Basil and Keep it All Year
This is one of the types of basil you can grow in your garden – it’s a derivative of common basil. Its scientific name is Ocimum basilicum var. purpurascens and it stands out for its characteristic purple leaves. The plant doesn’t grow very tall, as it won’t exceed a foot and a half in height.
A publication in Food & Function states that this variety is abundant in anthocyanins. It’s also known for its antimicrobial properties. Its uses in gastronomy are similar to those of the common basil.
Holy basil goes by the scientific name Ocimum tenuiflorum. It’s also known as tulsi and this plant can reach up to 3 feet in height. The leaves are purple when the plant grows in full sun; otherwise, they’re green. In fact, it has leaves of both colors.
According to a review published in Pharmacognosy Reviews, this variety of basil has compounds with anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-diabetic, antimicrobial, cardio-protective, and analgesic potential. Although it’s often used in tea, you can also add it to other drinks, such as lemonade.
This type of basil is used for decorative purposes. As its scientific name–Ocimum minimum–suggests, this variety of basic stands out for its small size. In Asia, it has a long history as an aromatic and medicinal herb. In addition, these uses have spread to other parts of the world.
The plant produces essential oils that are abundant in eugenol and linalool, two substances with antimicrobial potential, according to an article in the magazine Molecules.
Genovese basil (Ocimum basilicum ‘Genovese’) is popular for its applications in Italian cuisine. It’s a common ingredient in the preparation of pasta and pizza. It differs from other varieties due to its large curved leaves which are often used in the preparation of pesto.
The Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry reported that this type of basil contains volatile oils with pharmacological qualities. However, you should only use them in moderation. Evidence of their safe dosage and efficacy is still lacking.
The scientific name of this basil is Ocimum basilicum. Its name is due to the fact that it contains a substance which is also present in cinnamon and which gives it its particular aroma. The leaves are green, but some have reddish or purple tones. Although some use it for culinary purposes, it’s usually only decorative.
Some types of basil are also hybrids. This is the case of lemon basil (Ocimum × citriodorum) which is a hybrid between sweet basil and the species Ocimum americanum. The plant doesn’t reach a foot and a half in height and has white flowers.
It’s usually used in Arab, Persian, and Thai cuisine due to its particular lemon smell. It’s a common ingredient in recipes for salads, soups, stews, or grilled dishes.
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Types of basil you can grow in your garden
There are many species of basil, but almost all are used for medicinal and culinary purposes. They’re suitable for cultivation in gardens, although you should note that they don’t tolerate very low temperatures (below freezing).
They require loose and aerated soils that don’t retain too much moisture. However, they’re ideal for any garden, as they require little care, take up almost no space, and remain fresh for many months.