Kola Nut: Cultivation, Properties and Care
The kola nut is native to Africa and many consider it exotic, both for its origins and its properties. The tree is called Cola acuminate, and its fruit can be reddish or white inside.
The name may sound familiar. Perhaps it’s due to the famous Coca-Cola drink?
Yes, this nut is part of the original recipe of the soft drink and is used to add caffeine. We’ll tell you all about it here.
What is the kola nut?
The kola nut is a tree native to tropical Africa; its flowers are white, with large fruits of an intense green color. The fruit has a high content of caffeine and theobromine, the same ones found in coffee, tea, and chocolate.
The seeds are considered stimulants. However, these aren’t the only benefits of the tree that comes from the Malvaceae family. Thanks to the flexibility and strength of its wood, it’s used for construction.
There are several varieties of this plant. In addition, it requires damp and very fertile soils to grow, so it needs to be in a damp place throughout the year.
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Kola nut: characteristics and properties
Some of the reasons why this nut is so sought after lie in its stimulant properties. It has a high caffeine content (slightly more than coffee), and is used for making soft drinks.
Apart from this attribute, pharmacology also seems to be interested in it, as there’s scientific evidence to show that it contains tannins, and has antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. Traditional medicine also considers it to have diuretic and digestive effects, which is observed in a study conducted on rodents by the International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology, and Pharmacology.
Among its active principles are the following:
- Alkaloid bases: Caffeine, theobromine and theophylline.
- Tannins: Catechol, epicatechin, phlobaphenes, and potassium salts.
Current cultivation area
The largest cultivation occurs in Africa. To be more precise, in equatorial Africa (Zambia, Angola, Chad). In fact, 70% of kola nut exports come from Nigeria.
However, it has also been planted in countries with a similar climate, in other tropical areas such as the Caribbean or Brazil. There, humidity remains constant. Thus, even though it’s a native fruit of Africa, it can be grown in several countries.
General tips for growing the kola nut
The kola nut is very demanding, requiring specific conditions to grow healthy and strong. However, it is possible to recreate its ideal environment. We’ll explain what you should keep in mind.
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A tropical climate is a prerequisite. The average temperature throughout the year should range from 22 to 28 degrees Celsius (71 to 82 Fahrenheit), with periods of continuous rainfall and a relative humidity of over 80%.
It can grow in areas with semi-shade, in direct sunlight, or in wooded areas. However, what must be constant is a humid climate.
The main condition is that the soil must have the capacity to retain the moisture and nutrients that the plant needs. In addition, it should contain considerable levels of organic matter, be slightly acidic, and of clay texture.
Despite creating the perfect conditions for the tree, it is usually a slow-growing tree. It can take about 5 years to bear its first fruit, which is when it reaches maturity.
Seed is a good option because it offers a high germination rate. Fortunately, it isn’t a complicated procedure. If you want to reproduce the plant by this method, just make sure to plant it in a pot with peat substrate, and keep it moist and warm.
It usually germinates between 15 and 21 days. When the seedlings come out, you should continue to keep them moist and put them in a semi-shaded place. You can only transplant it when it has grown more than 30 centimeters (12 inches)
Where to get the kola nut?
You could ask in any supermarket or nursery. If you can’t find it, you can find it for sale online. This fruit can be consumed in different ways; in drinks or pastries are the most common ways.
So, you have all the information you need! What are you waiting for to start cultivating the kola nut at home?It might interest you...